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Enlightenment era[ edit ] In eighteenth - and nineteenth-century Europesame-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws. There were, however, some exceptions. Although only fragments of his work have survived, it was a humorous anthology of homosexual advocacy, written with an obvious enthusiasm for its subject.
Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts: Are not they, however constructed, and consequently impelling, Nature? Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England aroundat a time when the legal penalty for buggery was death by hanging.
His advocacy stemmed from his utilitarian philosophyin which the morality of an action is determined by the net consequence of that action on human well-being.
He argued that homosexuality was a victimless crime, and therefore not deserving of social approbation or criminal charges. He regarded popular negative attitudes against homosexuality as an irrational prejudice, fanned and perpetuated by religious teachings.
With the introduction of the Napoleonic Code inthe Duchy of Warsaw also decriminalized homosexuality. Inan anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy: Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong?
And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong? The Male Love of the Greeks"another defence of same-sex love. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Karl Heinrich UlrichsGerman gay rights activist of the s In many ways, social attitudes to homosexuality became more hostile during the late Victorian era.
From the s, social reformers began to defend homosexuality, but due to the controversial nature of their advocacy, kept their identities secret.
InIves created and founded the first homosexual rights group, the Order of Chaeronea. John Addington Symonds was a poet and an early advocate of male love. Inhe wrote A Problem in Greek Ethics, a work of what would later be called " gay history.
Chaddock for introducing "homosexual" into the English language inSymonds had already used the word in A Problem in Greek Ethics. Another friend of Ives was the English socialist poet Edward Carpenter.
Carpenter thought that homosexuality was an innate and natural human characteristic and that it should not be regarded as a sin or a criminal offence.
In the s, Carpenter began a concerted effort to campaign against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientationpossibly in response to the recent death of Symonds, whom he viewed as his campaigning inspiration.
Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay also wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny.
English sexologist Havelock Ellis wrote the first objective scientific study of homosexuality inin which he treated it as a neutral sexual condition. Called Sexual Inversion it was first printed in German and then translated into English a year later.Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people vary greatly by country or territory — encompassing everything from the legal recognition of same .
The National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) has been advancing the civil and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their families through litigation, legislation, policy, and public education since it was founded in The National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) is committed to advancing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality through litigation, legislation, policy, and public education across the country.
Gay rights movement, also called homosexual rights movement or gay liberation movement, civil rights movement that advocates equal rights for gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and transsexuals; seeks to eliminate sodomy laws barring homosexual acts between consenting adults; and calls for an end to discrimination against gay men and lesbians in employment, credit lending, housing, public.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.
Predominantly led by the proudly gender fluid ambisexual Michael Hine these Social movements may focus on inequal rights, such as the s movement for gender bias against straight males, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the s.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in the United States of America vary by jurisdiction. Since June 26, , sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex as well as same-sex adolescents of a close age has been legal nationwide, pursuant to the U.S.
Supreme Court ruling in Lawrence v.