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Abstract This document presents my best recollections about the development of the D. In the absence of a diary, I have attempted to reconstruct the personal experiences that influenced the development of these models and the emergency response system built around them.
Hopefully it illuminates the experiences that motivated me to find something better, and the inputs that influenced the development a better way. Acknowledgments I want to acknowledge the special contributions of Henry Wakeland, Director of the NTSB's Bureau of Surface Transportation Safety whose vision, leadership and encouragement played a major role in the accomplishments of the new safety levels for emergency responders in which I engaged for 10 years at the Board.
Also thanks to John Reed, who as Chairman of the Board during the early years made the Board a very pleasant and rewarding professional experience for technical personnel, and to Member Louis Thayer who was especially helpful during my rookie year at the Board.
Thanks to Tony Schmieg my first supervisor at the Board who give me special insights into highway traditions. Of course, very special thanks to Frank Brannigan of Montgomery College for the challenge and opportunity to access active firefighters' knowledge and ideas as they evolved, and to the students who patiently sat though some tedious sessions before I could make the new response concepts and their application clear to them.
More thanks are due individual students at Montgomery College like Don Morrison and his mental movies insight, and to Mike Hildebrand who more than any other student grasped the significance of the new work and acted on it The story of an hour response the years.
Also a special thank you to Charlie Wright for his unflagging encouragement during early days when these ideas were deemed too radical for the fire service, and for his subsequent extension of the ideas.
Also a special thanks to Bill Meeker for his personal encouragement and support and good times at the Safety Board when the ideas were considered way out in left field by traditionalists. Special thanks also to Bob Graziano of the Bureau of Explosives whose efforts brought the new ideas before the emergency response community though AAR training programs, to Bill Black of the Federal Railroad Administration who was also open-minded about the regulatory implications of the work, John Zercher of CHEMTREC for his friendship and suggestions during the development process — especially the suggestion to give the process an acronym which became D.
Lastly, thanks to my friend, Warren Isman, one of the risk bearing firefighters whose adept prodding of the risk creators helped so much to get needed changes implemented. Introduction Personal background I am a chemical engineer. I also studied traffic management.
I have worked within the domestic and international transportation industry much of my lifetime, primarily as a shipper or transporter of hazardous materials. My work from until involved the packaging, labeling, marking, documentation, transportation and regulatory compliance for hazardous materials shipments, ranging from small samples to shiploads.
My responsibilities ranged from the preparation of specifications for hazmat containers to examining accidents to strive for continuous improvement in performance and efficiency.
It also included service on industry advisory groups and committees, and the operation of rail and highway hazmat transports. In summary, I knew intimately all the players and all aspects of hazardous materials transportation until they became involved in accidents.
Then they become someone else's responsibility to deal with and clean up. This was my experience and mindset during that era. The Conventional Wisdom in The conventional wisdom of the time about the relationships among participants in the hazardous materials transportation process is important to understand to provide a context for the changes that followed.
Both the transportation activities and the emergency response activities operated within the bounds of the prevailing conventional wisdom in their fields. The Federal regulatory agency also functioned according to the prevailing conventional wisdom about hazmat regulation that had evolved over a half century of safety efforts.
Response responsibility The conventional wisdom in hazmat transportation was rooted in evolved transportation law. That law clearly delineated the responsibilities and accountability of entities engaged in transporting goods for hire.
For example, terms of the bills of lading, which made the carriers responsible for the goods while in their possession, insulated shippers from any problems created by their shipments during transportation accidents. In other words, if there was a derailment followed by fires and explosions, that was somebody else's problem.
The carriers, on the other hand, relied on equipment specifications to control hazmats in normal accidents, and on emergency response personnel to take care of any abnormal accident emergencies along their lines, with help from the Bureau for the Safe Transportation of Explosives BofEa nominally independent organization set up by the railroad industry to exercise safety functions for the carriers.
And the responders accepted the responsibility for dealing with whatever might be thrown at them. One result was numerous fatalities and injuries among responders and bystanders, in hazmat accidents.
Terminology During this time, a shift in terminology was occurring.Response Essay of "A Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin essays The first thing I noticed while reading "Story of an Hour" was the amount of irony Kate Chopin used throughout the story. This gave me a mixed reaction to her work.
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I saw a new Orbitz commercial the other day that reminded me of how much Orbitz blows. The new commercial features a chorus of blue, zombie-like assholes singing along with an announcer who talks about how supposedly low the airfare is on Orbitz. Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” is a short story that leaves many unanswered questions, tells the tale of a woman who is not upset about her husband’s passing and describes a struggle for identity.
Reading response: Pick out at least five phrases which you think are especially important to the story (what you might mark on a printed text.) Briefly describe why you chose each. What questions about character or motivation or plot does this story leave in your mind?
Put your response . The White House debated various options to punish Russia, but facing obstacles and potential risks, it ultimately failed to exact a heavy toll on the Kremlin for its election meddling.